Electric Networks - Smart Transport
Director: SAUDEMONT Christophe
Name – Title – Laboratory
AITOUCHE Abdel – EC HDR – CRIStAL
ROBYNS Benoît – EC HDR – L2EP
SAUDEMONT Christophe – EC HDR – L2EP
ABBES Dhaker – EC – DR – L2EP
DAVIGNY Arnaud – EC – DR – L2EP
FLOREZ Diana – EC – DR – L2EP
HENNETON Antoine – EC – DR
DELOUCHE David – EC – DR – PRISME
NASSER Mehdi – EC – DR – AT R&D L2EP
MOLLET Fabien – IR permanent – L2EP
BENSMAINE Fayçal – Post-Doc – L2EP
MIRON Cristian – Postdoctoral researcher – CRIStAL
IDELLETTE JUDITH Hermine-Som – Postdoctoral researcher – CRIStAL
LESEL Jonathan – Postdoctoral researcher CIFRE Siemens – L2EP
SARABI Siyamak – Postdoctoral researcher ADEME – L2EP
SHANZI Li – Postdoctoral researcher – CRIStAL
ALARIDH Ibrahim – Postdoctoral researcher – CRIStAL
VENTORUZZO Géraldine – Postdoctoral researcher CIFRE Renault- L2EP
YAN Xingyu – Postdoctoral researcher – L2EP
ZHANG Haibo – Postdoctoral researcher – L2EP
Electrical networks are undergoing rapid changes to meet the developing needs for intermittent electricity production sources (with intermittent operating conditions), for increasing energy efficiency requirements and reliability of the electrical energy supply, for incorporating renewable energies in the open electricity market, and for mastering electrical energy demand and for profiles of the power consumed.
Electrical energy transport and distribution networks are concerned, but also, to diverse degrees, networks inside industrial units and buildings, as well as the networks specific to transport systems and their embedded networks. The development of Smart Grids is aimed at satisfying the above needs, which are sometimes contradictory; this will involve energy optimisation and increasing the reliability of electrical networks (on land, offshore, embedded and in housing) – Axis 1 of RETI centre.
At the same time, in an wide-ranging way, the availability of energy and transport systems represents a primordial challenge. From the development of these systems results, for example, an increase in the amount of information exchanged, which is communicated to all those involved, and is needed to manage the whole system. We therefore need to develop methods and tools permitting these systems to continue operating, even in a reduced form, when certain elements are lacking (faulty sensors or actuators, process breakdowns, etc.). We can describe them as Fault-Tolerant Systems – Axis 2 of RETI centre.
The work undertaken in this unit bears on energy optimisation and increasing the reliability of networks of all kinds (on land, offshore, embedded, housing, railways, etc.) in order to meet the following objectives:
- increasing the integration of decentralised production of a renewable origin, with operating conditions that are inherently irregular
- increasing the energy efficiency of electrical systems, from production to consumption, as well as the reliability of these systems as regards supplying electrical energy
- future demand for a “natural” integration in the electricity market of renewable energies and of cogeneration
- controlling the demand for electrical energy; more particularly, the work involves optimising the management of networks by developing monitoring, optimisation and planning methods; multi-source approaches; assessments of the contribution of energy storage systems; network architecture; integration of communication systems (via partnerships); technical-economic and electricity market analyses.
According to the European Commission, Smart Grids could help reduce the EU’s energy consumption by about 9% in a little over ten years. A major part of the challenges to be faced in the area results from future changes to electrical networks. Globally, from the transport network to the consumer, we can identify: (i) the growth in energy efficiency in systems (ii) The arrival, at all levels, of smart techniques and communications (iii) the integration of the means for storing energy. Regarding the transport and interconnection networks, we have pinpointed the increasing integration of renewable energies on a large scale, through new architectures of the HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) type.
Regarding distribution networks, among the challenges to be addressed, we might note: (i) the integration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (idea of “vehicle to grid”), (ii) developing the intelligence of these networks with a view to increased integration of renewable local sources and a smart management of consumer demand.
At a lower level, we find the creation of zones, districts, that could be autonomous in energy. The following challenges will need to be envisaged: (i) integration of local production for consumers-producers (renewable energies, storage, foreseeable production) (ii) development of adapted network architectures (micro networks or local networks) (iii) active management of demand and development of load management (made possible thanks to the development of smart meters).
Lastly, the buildings themselves will need to undergo similar developments: (i) integration of local production based on renewable energies (ii) development of energy management leading to the most local consumption possible (iii) possibility to supply electricity to the network (iv) integration of electric vehicles (idea of “Vehicle to home”). Turning to the electrical networks supplying power to land transport systems, such as railways: the increase in traffic (freight, passengers) predicted in the years to come will lead to increasing energy consumption. Solutions that could meet this future demand, while keeping consumption and the energy bill under control, will need to emerge, such as the integration of storage equipment and new means of renewable and delocalised means of production. These systems will be interconnected via new architectures, and will have to be the subject of adapted and optimised energy management.
As regards embedded electricity networks, the challenges arise from the wish to develop DC electricity networks with energy exchanges, with the aim of increasing energy efficiency, to reduce the mass through improved sizing of the systems of power distribution, etc. Among them, we should note: (i) integration of energy storage systems (ii) development of optimised energy management integrating a sufficient degree of decentralisation (iii) development of adapted electric protections.
The industrial partners
→Integration of renewable energies in the networks: GB Solar, Maia Eolis, EDF, Seolis, Geredis, Helexia
→Integration of renewable energies in buildings: Auchan, Eiffage Energies
→Integration of transport systems in the networks: SNCF, Seolis, Geredis, Siemens, Renault
→Embedded networks: Hispano-Suiza
- CONIFER– Innovative Design and Tools for a Smart Electric Network applied to Railways (ANR, ANRT, SNCF, L2EP, G2ELab, SERMA).
- SACRE– Storage by Compressed Air for the Electric Network (ANR, EDF, Géostock, LMS, Promes, L2EP).
- GESEDMA– Management and Exchanges of Decentralised Multi-Player Energy Services (ADEME, AUCHAN, L2EP, Helexia, Geredis, Maia Eolis)
- GISEP– Smart Management of electric Energy Sources including photovoltaic, charges of commercial buildings and energy storage procedures ((ADEME, AUCHAN, L2EP);
- HYBSTOCKPV– Hybridation of electric energy storage for a smart integration of photovoltaic technology in electricity networks ((MEDEE, GB Solar, L2EP)
- MEDEE7– Energy management in embedded networks (MEDEE, ANRT, Hispano-Suiza, L2EP).
- OCESE – Optimisation of Coupling of Solar Energy and LED lighting in tertiary buildings (ADEME, Eiffage Energies, L2EP).
- VERDI– Electric Vehicles and Renewable Energies in a Smart Distribution Network (ANRT, Seolis, Geredis, Saintronic, L2EP, XLim) · Plus d’informations: http://www.verdi-grid.fr/
. V2G – Contribution du Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) with energy management of electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (Ademe, SNCF, Seolis, Geredis, L2EP)
- Optimisation of electrical safety of the power networks, load installations and electric vehicles (ANRT, Renault, L2EP)
- Study of an HVDC Parallel-Series architecture for offshore wind farms (L2EP).
- Optimisation of energy consumption for an automatic metro line, taking into account hazards to the traffic with the help of artificial intelligence tools (ANRT, Siemens, L2EP)
- New strategies for the adjustment of an electrical smart grid via a communication network using a probabilistic characterisation of PV power variations (L2EP)
One of the issues in this area is the design of automatised systems with continuous or discrete dynamics, or even hybrid, with fault tolerance and a knowledge of the analytic model. Fault tolerance of the active type is studied mainly online, in order to set up surveillance algorithms to characterise the state of operations of the components and the system, to implant control/command algorithms so that the system can continue to carry out its tasks, even in a reduced way, and to be able to modify the objectives (or tasks) of the system to guarantee operating safety if the command does not permit it. Taking into account the uncertainties of the model; improving the performances of the tolerant command and the dynamic calculation of new laws of command, while taking into account the residual material architecture and the objectives of production, are all challenges that need to be faced, despite the existence of constraints such as the need to calculate the new command laws online, etc. The applicable field for these changes, within the unit, concerns transport and energy systems.
Operating Safety for the control/command of systems: Internet of Things
The Challenges of the tolerant systems axis
In a wide-ranging way, the reliability of energy systems mentioned above constitutes a primordial challenge. The development of these systems results in an increase in the amount of information, which is communicated to the different stakeholders (producers, consumers, intermediaries) and needed to manage the whole system. Maintaining or even increasing the reliability and availability of the systems means developing tools and methods that can monitor, reconfigure and operate in reduced mode, when faults or breakdowns take place. Another challenge to be faced, at the heart of these complex systems, will be the construction of the resulting information using multiple data, issued, among others, from the many measuring devices distributed over the installations (but also outside or forecast data, etc.). This information will have to be elaborated with the least possible uncertainty if it is to be useful and usable for management and decision-making ends.
Experimental and software platforms
Electric Energy Platform
As part of our projects (technical assistance, dissertation, post-doctorate, teaching), we place special importance on experimental testing.
- helps enrich our methods and models, and makes them more precise
- provides additional credibility to our work
- is approved and recognised by our industrial partners
Examples of projects tested on the platform
– Participation in primary frequency control by a wind turbine with variable speed
– Association of a wind turbine with variable speed with flywheel energy storage
– Connection of a hybrid hydro-/wind-power system with an isolated load
– Management of a hybrid system (dispersal and storage of energy by supercapacity) for a local DC plane network
– Energy management of tertiary buildings equipped with photovoltaic panels and LED lighting
– Management of hybrid storage (battery and supercapacity),
– Energy management of an AC single-phase railway network with a hybrid sub station (renewable storage and sources)
MACHINES (synchronous, asynchronous, DC) – SOURCES (DC supply, transformers, 3 technologies of Photovoltaic Panels) – SOLAR EMULATOR – STORAGE (inertial, Li-Ion battery, supercapacity) – LOADS (programmable loads, resistive plans) – MEASUREMENTS (2 and 4-circuit oscilloscopes, PXI, 6 circuit wattmeter) – CONVERTERS – SPECIFIC DEVICES (single-phased transformer 1kHz – 4 kVA – Square Wave, filtering elements) – CAN BUS – CONTROL CARDS-REAL-TIME CONTROL